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  운영자 2005-10-03 13:17:51 | Hit : 26933 | Vote : 8755
Subject   [자료] Worldwide patterns of mitochondrial DNA differentiation in the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina).
Mol Biol Evol. 1996 Feb;13(2):368-82. Related Articles, Links  

Worldwide patterns of mitochondrial DNA differentiation in the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina).

Stanley HF, Casey S, Carnahan JM, Goodman S, Harwood J, Wayne RK.

Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, UK.

The harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) has one of the broadest geographic distributions of any pinniped, stretching from the east Baltic, west across the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans to southern Japan. Although individuals may travel several hundred kilometers on annual feeding migrations, harbor seals are generally believed to be philopatric, returning to the same areas each year to breed. Consequently, seals from different areas are likely to be genetically differentiated, with levels of genetic divergence increasing with distance. Differentiation may also be caused by long-standing topographic barriers such as the polar sea ice. We analyzed samples of 227 harbor seals from 24 localities and defined 34 genotypes based on 435 bp of control region sequence. Phylogenetic analysis and analysis of molecular variance showed that populations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and east and west coast populations of these oceans are significantly differentiated. Within these four regions, populations that are geographically farthest apart generally are the most differentiated and often do not share genotypes or differ in genotype frequency. The average corrected sequence divergence between populations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans is 3.28% +/- 0.38% and those among populations within each of these oceans are 0.75% +/- 0.69% and 1.19% +/- 0.65%, respectively. Our results suggest that harbor seals are regionally philopatric, on the scale of several hundred kilometers. However, genetic discontinuities may exist, even between neighboring populations such as those on the Scottish and east English coasts or the east and west Baltic. The mitochondrial data are consistent with an ancient isolation of populations in both oceans, due to the development of polar sea ice. In the Atlantic and Pacific, populations appear to have been colonized from west to east with the European populations showing the most recent common ancestry. We suggest the recent ancestry of European seal populations may reflect recolonization from Ice Age refugia after the last glaciation.

PMID: 8587502 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 Prev   [자료] The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the harbor seal, Phoca vitulina
 Next   [자료] Mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA analyses of harbour seal population structure in the northeast Pacific Ocean

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