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  운영자 2005-02-15 13:51:24 | Hit : 7866 | Vote : 2375
Subject   [자료] 미국 버몬트의 기형개구리 조사 보고서
제목 : "Diagnostic Findings Associated with Malformed Frogs from Vermont Summer 1997"

SUMMARY
Ninety three frogs were submitted for evaluation. Frog malformations were classified into 6 major categories and 12 subcategories based on necropsy observations of 72 frogs (Appendix J) and the findings of radiographs performed on 69 of these 72 frogs (Appendix D). All of the primary malformations in frogs from Vermont were relatively
uniform, involved missing or incomplete limbs, which is quite different from frog malformations found in other states where our lab has conducted studies. Unlike malformations in 3 other states (1997 and 1998 National Wildlife Health Center data), Vermont frogs collected in 1997 were unique in having no multiple limbs, no phocomelia or complete but extremely abnormal limbs, no pure rotational/skin web malformations, and only one frog with a possible craniofacial malformation. It was interesting that, on the average, all malformed frogs from all Vermont sites were in poor to emaciated body condition without discrimination by site or malformation type (Appendix F, Tables #1 and #2). Again, this was not our finding in other states. adiographs were extremely helpful in determining the degree of malformation in the limbs as well as the type of abnormal termination in both long bones and digits. Malformations of the hip were also seen in some of the Vermont frogs and these would not have been detected without the use of high detail radiography. Radiographs were also helpful in ifferentiating trauma from malformation, although necropsy bservations and histopathology were also important in ruling out trauma. Histopathology was performed on 19 frogs (Appendix G). istopathology on malformed bones showed two general types of bone changes. One of the characteristic types of microscopic change seen t the termination of the malformed limb was very disorganized and yperplastic cartilage that was not ossifying normally and interfered with the formation of bone cortex. The second type of bone change seen at the point of termination was the formation of small nests of endosteal type cartilage matrix with some organization but no obvious maturation or ossification. None of the malformed limbs had inflammation and they often had very poor skeletal muscle evelopment at the terminal end. Traumatic amputations did have microscopic evidence of skeletal muscle necrosis and inflammation. There were no microscopic changes in internal organs that could be related to malformations. The brain and spinal cord of the frogs submitted often had dilated ventricles and we are in the process of consulting with a neuropathologist to determine the significance of this finding. Virology cultures were conducted on 51 tissues on 2 different cell lines adapted for amphibians and electron microscopy was performed on selected homogenates of frog tissues to determine if viruses were present. No viruses were isolated or identified in any Vermont frogs. Bacterial cultures were performed on 44 tissues and 98 bacteria were isolated and identified. There did not appear to be any direct association between bacterial isolates and the observed malformations. Parasitologic examinations were conducted on 14 frogs. Although the parasitology sample size was small, no association could be found between the presence of metacercaria and the occurrence of malformations.

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