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  운영자 2007-01-22 13:10:26 | Hit : 9103 | Vote : 2510
Subject   [자료] Ecology of wildlife rabies in Europe
Ecology of wildlife rabies in Europe

HOLMALA, KATJA; KAUHALA, KAARINA

Mammal Review, Volume 36, Number 1, January 2006, pp. 17-36(20)

Publisher: Blackwell Publishing

Abstract:

• The number of wildlife rabies cases has increased in Europe in recent years. We review the epizootiology of wildlife rabies in Europe, paying special attention to recent changes to the situation of two important vector species: the red fox and the raccoon dog. Red fox Vulpes vulpes has been the main vector of rabies since 1945, but the number and proportion of raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides cases has rapidly increased during the past few years, particularly in north-eastern Europe.

• The transmission rate (average number of susceptible animals infected by each rabid animal) is critical for rabies spread and is partly determined by population density. Both raccoon dogs and foxes live in pairs. Foxes also live in family groups. Pairs and groups share their territories. Home range size usually correlates negatively with population density. Fox home ranges are 50-1500 ha, those of raccoon dogs 150-700 ha. The threshold value for rabies spread among foxes is estimated to be 0.63 individuals/km2. Although fox density in eastern and northern Europe may be lower than this, the pooled density of foxes and raccoon dogs exceeds the threshold density.

• Animal movements, especially dispersal of young, pose a risk for rabies spread. Although the likelihood of an epizootic is highest where fox and raccoon dog densities are highest, rabies may spread fastest where population densities are lower, because dispersal distances tend to correlate negatively with population density.

• Oral vaccinations have been more effective in rabies control than culling foxes. Where two vector species exist, vaccination should be conducted twice a year, because most raccoon dogs disperse in autumn but some foxes do not disperse before mid- or late winter.

• New rabies models, based on two vector species and their interaction, and which take into account the hibernation period of raccoon dogs, are needed for north-eastern Europe.
Keywords: epizootic; inter-specific interactions; Nyctereutes procyonoides; pooled density; rabies control; Vulpes vulpes

Document Type: Research article

DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2907.2006.00078.x


http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/mam/2006/00000036/00000001/art00002
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  2007/01/29 
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