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  운영자 2007-01-29 15:34:05 | Hit : 8888 | Vote : 2536
Subject   [자료] Rabies in North America and Europe
R Soc Med 2002;95:9-13
© 2002 The Royal Society of Medicine

Rabies in North America and Europe

Christopher J Finnegan BSc MSc     Sharon M Brookes BSc PhD     Nicholas Johnson BSc PhD     Jemma Smith BSc     Karen L Mansfield BSc     Victoria L Keene BSc     Lorraine M McElhinney MSc PhD     Anthony R Fooks BSc PhD  

Rabies Research and Diagnostics Group, Department of Virology, Veterinary Laboratories Agency (Weybridge), New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK

Correspondence to: Dr A Fooks E-mail: t.fooks@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk

INTRODUCTION  

Rabies is caused by infection with a negative-stranded RNA virus within the Lyssavirus genus (family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales), mainly transmitted via saliva following a bite from an infected animal. Transmission may also occur through mucous membranes, but not through intact skin. The main source of infection from domestic reservoir species is dogs and cats.

There are seven rabies virus (RV) genotypes, six of which have similar effects in man; the exception is genotype 2, which has never been isolated in human cases. The main genotypes of interest for the purpose of this review are 1, 5 and 6. Genotype 1 viruses have a worldwide distribution and are generally found in terrestrial animals. Genotypes 5 and 6, commonly known as European bat lyssaviruses (EBLs), are restricted in distribution to Europe and are frequently isolated from European bats. Genotype 1 viruses have never been isolated from European bats.

Rabies can probably infect most if not all mammals. The virus enters the central nervous system of the new host, causing an encephalomyelitis which is always fatal once symptoms develop. The manifestations in human cases include spasms, hallucinations, hydrophobia, aerophobia, dysphasia, paralysis and coma. Extreme agitation and convulsions can be interspersed with periods of lucidity. World wide, the disease causes many thousands of human deaths each year. The World Health Organization (WHO) World Survey of Rabies for the year 1997 gave an estimate of between 35 000 and 50 000 annually1. Gross under-reporting is likely because many countries lack the necessary diagnostic facilities; also, the populations most affected tend to be rural (especially in developing countries) with erratic notification systems. African and Asian countries are particularly affected because of their animal reservoirs and the lack of healthcare and control measures. The subject has been thoroughly reviewed by King and Turner2. Here we focus on human rabies in North America and Europe.


http://www.jrsm.org/cgi/content/full/95/1/9

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  2007/01/22 


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