| Published online before print February 10, 2006, 10.1073/pnas.0511120103 |
PNAS | February 21, 2006 | vol. 103 | no. 8 | 2845-2850
BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES / MICROBIOLOGY
Establishment of multiple sublineages of H5N1 influenza virus in Asia: Implications for pandemic control
H. Chen,, G. J. D. Smith,, K. S. Li, J. Wang, X. H. Fan, J. M. Rayner,, D. Vijaykrishna,, J. X. Zhang,, L. J. Zhang,, C. T. Guo, C. L. Cheung,, K. M. Xu,, L. Duan,, K. Huang, K. Qin,, Y. H. C. Leung, W. L. Wu,, H. R. Lu, Y. Chen, N. S. Xia, T. S. P. Naipospos¶, K. Y. Yuen, S. S. Hassan||, S. Bahri¶, T. D. Nguyen**, R. G. Webster,,, J. S. M. Peiris,, and Y. Guan,,
Joint Influenza Research Centre (Shantou University Medical College and Hong Kong University), Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515031, China; State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Department of Microbiology, University of Hong Kong, Faculty of Medicine Building, 21 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, China; Research Center for Medical Molecular Virology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005, China; ¶Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Health, Government of Indonesia, Pasar Minggu, Jakarta Selatan 12550, Indonesia; ||Veterinary Research Institute, 31 400 Ipoh, Malaysia; **National Institute of Veterinary Research, Dong Da, Hanoi, Vietnam; and Virology Division, Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105
Preparedness for a possible influenza pandemic caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza A subtype H5N1 has become a global priority. The spread of the virus to Europe and continued human infection in Southeast Asia have heightened pandemic concern. It remains unknown from where the pandemic strain may emerge; current attention is directed at Vietnam, Thailand, and, more recently, Indonesia and China. Here, we report that genetically and antigenically distinct sublineages of H5N1 virus have become established in poultry in different geographical regions of Southeast Asia, indicating the long-term endemicity of the virus, and the isolation of H5N1 virus from apparently healthy migratory birds in southern China. Our data show that H5N1 influenza virus, has continued to spread from its established source in southern China to other regions through transport of poultry and bird migration. The identification of regionally distinct sublineages contributes to the understanding of the mechanism for the perpetuation and spread of H5N1, providing information that is directly relevant to control of the source of infection in poultry. It points to the necessity of surveillance that is geographically broader than previously supposed and that includes H5N1 viruses of greater genetic and antigenic diversity.
genetics | human | influenza A | virus evolution | avian
Contributed by R. G. Webster, December 23, 2005
Author contributions: Y.G., H.C. and K.S.L. designed research; G.J.D.S., K.S.L., J.W., X.H.F., J.M.R., D.V., J.X.Z., L.J.Z., C.L.C., K.M.X., L.D., K.H., K.Q., Y.H.C.L., W.L.W., H.R.L., and K.Y.Y., performed research; X.H.F., C.T.G., Y.C., N.S.X., T.S.P.N., R.G.W., S.S.H., S.B., and T.D.N. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; H.C., G.J.D.S., D.V., J.S.M.P., and Y.G. analyzed data; and H.C., G.J.D.S., R.G.W., J.S.M.P., and Y.G. wrote the paper.
Conflict of interest statement: No conflicts declared.
Data deposition: The sequences reported in this paper have been deposited in the GenBank database (accession nos. DQ320809–DQ321335).
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© 2006 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA